NJB Hoofcare - Foul in the Foot (interdigital necrobacillosis) for Brockhampton,, Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire
Foul-in-the-foot, also known as interdigital necrobacillosis or foot rot, is an acute and highly infectious disease of cattle characterised by swelling of the foot and resulting in lameness. This extremely painful condition can become chronic if treatment is not provided, allowing other foots’ structures to become affected.
Foul-in-the-foot occurs when the skin in between the claws becomes damaged and a bacterium called Fusobacterium necrophorum infects the soft tissue between the digits, although other bacterial species have been linked to the condition. A painful swelling of the foot between the claws and around the adjacent coronary band occurs rapidly and the inflammation may extend to the pastern and fetlock. Other symptoms caused by the illness include pain caused by the pressure of the swelling, severe lameness, fever, and a reduction in milk yield.
More than a single foot is rarely involved at the same time in mature cows but foul can occasionally develop in several feet in calves. As with most foot conditions, the hind limbs are more likely to be affected. The claws are typically markedly separated, with the swelling uniformly distributed between them. As necrosis of the skin progresses, sloughing of tissue and the discharge of pus is likely to follow, and the condition produces a characteristic odour.
Open lesions can be infected with secondary pathogens, complicating treatment and recovery. Severe cases can result in permanent damage to milk yield in the current lactation even if the foot recovers.
Antibiotic treatment will be necessary; the lesion must be cleaned, inspected and a topical dressing and bandaging applied and replaced on a daily basis. 'Super' foul, which is a more systemic form of the illness, may be more resistant to antibiotic therapy. Other foot conditions that can cause similar swelling to foul-in-the-foot should be discounted, and veterinary attention must be sought if the case is severe or is non-responsive to antibiotics.
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